Samuel, Kings, Chronicles
The Central Theme of the Bible
• The Old Testament is an account of a Nation.
• The New Testament is the account of a Man.
• The Creator became a Man. His appearance is the Central Event of
• He died to purchase us and is alive now.
• The most exalted privilege is to know Him. That’s what the Bible is
Rise and Fall of the Monarchy
• 1st & 2nd Samuel– Samuel– Saul
• 1st & 2nd Kings (
– David’s 40-year reign
– The Divided Kingdom
– The Exile: Assyria and Babylon
In the Septuagint, these books are called 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th “Kingdoms”
(Judah and Israel).
• 1st & 2nd Chronicles
– Recap of the Southern Kingdom: Judah.
The 1st Book of Samuel
• Samuel: The Last of the Judges (1 Sam 1 – 7).
– Birth and youth.
– Call and Office.
– Times and Acts.
• Saul: The First of the Kings (1 Sam 8 –15).
– Appointment as king.
– Promising Beginning.
– Later Folly and Sin.
• David: The Greatest of the Kings (1 Sam 15 – 31).
– Anointing by Samuel.
– Service before Saul.
– Years as a fugitive.
• Equaled only by Moses.
• Ends the period of the Judges.
• Heads the order of the prophets.
– Founded the schools of the prophets.
• Places Israel’s first king on the throne.
• Later anoints David.
– Confronts Goliath.
– Flees Saul as a fugitive.
Samuel is one of the most venerable figures in Israel’s history. 1 Samuel
covers about 115 years: from the birth of Samuel to the death of Saul
(when David is 30). David’s genealogy anticipated in Gen 38 and the
Book of Ruth!
• Oppressed Israel for 40 years.
• Samson had only tactical successes.
• Ark was lost to them briefly (1 Sam 4).
• Defeated under Samuel’s leadership.
• Major nemesis for Saul.
– Ultimately subdued by David.
• People clamor for a king.
– To “go out before us to fight our battles.” (1 Samuel 8:20).
– Request born in a committee meeting, not a prayer meeting.
God had promised kings to Abraham from the beginning (Gen 17:6, 16;
35:11). However, faithfulness to God was to be their top priority (Deut
And the LORD said unto Samuel, “Hearken unto the voice of the people
in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have
rejected me, that I should not reign over them…”
1 Samuel 8:7
Samuel warns them that this will invite a harvest of regrets…
• Early promise
– Striking physical superiority.
– Modest, direct, generous.
• Later decline
– Irreverent presumption; willful impatience.
– Disobedience and deceit.
– Failure to destroy the Amalekites.
– The Witch at Endor.
Saul was a Benjamite from Gibeah (cf. close of Judges!). Sets his capital
there. Although early on he showed promise, Saul became impatient: the
Philistines were arrayed against Israel; Saul was to wait for Samuel at
Gilgal; Saul violated the priest’s prerogative, offering prearranged
sacrifices to the Lord. Following shortly, Saul calls the priest to ask for
guidance, but rushes men off… etc. [Haman will be a descendant of
Agag, the king of the Amalekites]
In desperation Saul seeks out a medium who was herself alarmed by
Samuel’s arrival… predicting Saul’s death the next day at Gilboa. A
promising career ends in ignominy. “Self” will miss the best and court
the worst. Wonderful opportunities, in themselves, do not crown men.
– 9 feet tall; professional combatant.
– David picks up five stones from the brook .
• Why 5?
– Goliath from a family of 5! (2 Sam 21:18-21).
• Public notice as a deliverer of Israel and chief of Saul’s men of war.
• Becomes devoted friend of Jonathan, Saul’s son.
The 2nd Book of Samuel
• David’s Triumphs (2 Sam 1 – 12)
– King of Judah (at Hebron) 7 yrs.
– King of All Israel (at Jerusalem) 13 yrs.
• David’s Troubles (2 Sam 13 – 24)
– In his Family.
– In the Nation.
David Accepted As King Over All Israel
• Human Kinship: “We are thy bone and thy flesh…”
• Proven Merit: “Thou leddest out and broughtest in Israel.”
• Divine Warrant: “The Lord said unto thee: Thou shalt be a captain
A sermon in itself: Christ’s right of kingship over our lives. Is the
“Government of my life upon His shoulders?”
The Davidic Covenant: 2 Samuel 7
• Affects all that follows.
– in the Scriptures.
– in the history of mankind.
• Divine Confirmation of throne in Israel.
• Perpetuity of the Davidic Dynasty.
• Davidic Covenant is Unconditional.
• Messianic Implications.
Also the LORD telleth thee that he will make thee a house. And when thy
days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed
after thee… and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for
my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever.
2 Samuel 7:11-13
Divine confirmation of the throne in Israel. Predicted perpetuity of the
Davidic Dynasty: “House,” or posterity; “Throne,” or royal authority;
“Kingdom,” or sphere of rule.
I will be his father, and he shall be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten
him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men: But my
mercy shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put
away before thee. And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for
ever before thee: thy throne shall be established for ever.
2 Samuel 7:14-16
All three (v.16) FOREVER! Confirmed in v.29; 36, 37. With an oath in
Psalm 89:35; Acts 2:30.
His seed also will I make to endure for ever, and his throne as the days of
heaven. Once have I sworn by my holiness that I will not lie unto David.
His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as the sun before me. It shall
be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven.
Psalm 89:29, 35-37
Therefore being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath
to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise
up Christ to sit on his throne;
Where is Christ today? On His Father’s throne.
• Divine Confirmation of throne in Israel.
• Perpetuity of the Davidic Dynasty.
• Davidic Covenant is Unconditional.
• Messianic Implications: “Son of David, Son of Abraham” (Mt 1:1);
“Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Root of David” (Rev 5:5)
The Scarlet Thread Continues
• The “Seed of the Woman” Gen 3:15 The Race
• Abraham Gen 22:18 The Nation
• Jacob Gen 49:10 The Tribe
• David 2 Sam 7:11-16 The Family
• Victorious Warrior, Clever General; Subdues…
• Philistines to the West (Saul’s nemesis);
• Syrians and Hadadezer in the North;
• Ammonites and Moabites on the East;
• Edomites and Amalekites in the South.
• Constructive Administrator:
– “Judgment and justice to all the people.”
– Organizes Priesthood into 24 Courses.
• Major Poet, Song Writer: Psalms
David’s Turning Point
• His Great Sin (Honesty of the Scriptures): adultery; then murder.
• Culmination of a Process: prosperous ease and self-indulgence.
• Accumulating wives forbidden (Deut 17:17).
• Remorse and Repentance (Psalm 51). “A man after God’s own
heart…” (1 Sam 13:14; Acts 13:22).
Bathsheba was the granddaughter of Ahithophel, who later counsels
Absalom against David…
Years of Suffering
• Remorse and Contrition did not obliterate the consequences:
incest, fratricide, intrigues, rebellion, and Civil War.
• Not allowed to build the Temple (yet he still prepaid most of the
Troubles in the Family
• “The sword shall never depart from thy house”
• 1st son by Bathsheba died
• Loss of moral authority: Amnon raped David’s daughter Tamar;
Absalom killed Amnon; Absalom led a rebellion against David.
• Counseled by Ahithophel: Adonijah seized the kingship from
Solomon. [Remember, Ahithophel is Bathsheba’s grandfather (her
father, Eliam, was Ahithophel’s son).]
1st Kings: “Discontinuance through Disobedience”
• King Solomon: 40 years 1 Kgs 1-11
– Temple Built
– Zenith of Fame and Glory
– Declension and Decease
• Divided Kingdom: 80 years 1 Kgs 12-22
– Accession of Rehoboam
– Kings of Southern Kingdom (“Judah”)
– Kings of Northern Kingdom (“Israel”)
• The Prophet Elijah
• Acceded when 15 years old (Josephus);
• Adonijah attempted to preempt, but was thwarted by Nathan;
• David, on his deathbed, instructs Solomon to “clean house” of
overdue punishments: Joab (for Abner), Shimei, et al. Abner was
the Uncle of Saul; leader of Saul’s army; introduced David after
victory over Goliath; etc.) He switches over to David; a rival of Joab,
who kills him. Shimei was a Benjamite who cursed and threw stones
at David; ostensibly repented, but his fidelity was in doubt. [Shimei
is an ancestor of Mordecai…]
• Preparations: Cedars of Lebanon (vs. coarser sycamore); Hiram’s
friendship with David; Design given to David by God!
• 183,300 Workforce: 30,000 men (10,000/mo shift); 70,000 carriers;
80,000 hewers in the mountains; and, 3,300 supervisors.
• Personally brilliant, but he lacked moral vigor; excessively self indulgent.
– Peak of Israel’s prosperity;
– Visit by the Queen of Sheba;
– “Solomon in all his glory…”
The Zenith of the Kingdom
• From the Mediterranean to the Euphrates.
• From the Red Sea and Arabia to Lebanon.
• Tributary states held in subjection.
• Canaanites became peaceable subjects or useful servants.
• Immense treasures won by David, supplemented with oppressive
• Israel’s kings should not multiply wealth, horses, or wives (Deut
17:14-20). Solomon did all three: he traded in chariots, horses;
indulged many foreign wives (700 + 300!) from the very nations
warned against; and, he introduced false gods and false worship.
• Solomon’s self-life had its full swing and in the end, turning away
sad and sick of it all, he says in Ecclesiastes: “All is vanity…”
• His excessive taxation alienated the affections of his people.
• Led astray by his wives: temples to Chemosh, Baal-Peor, obscene
idol of Moab; Moloch, the god of Ammon; and, Astoreth, goddess
• Adversaries stirred up a rebellion: Ephraim became the center of
Ripped through Disobedience: Kingdom to be rent in twain
Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee,
and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have
commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give
it to thy servant. Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy
father’s sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. Howbeit I will not
rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my
servant’s sake, and for Jerusalem’s sake which I have chosen.
1 Kgs 11:13
The Divided Kingdom
• Rehoboam’s Folly: ill-advised expansion of excessive taxation.
• Jeroboam’s “Opportunity”: established alternative worship
centers (to break Jerusalem’s hold on the people).
• Dan in the North; Bethel in the South.
• The Nation split into two: The Northern Kingdom under Jeroboam
(“Israel”) and the Southern Kingdom under Rehoboam (“Judah”).
Elijah (Last Six Chapters of 1st Kings)
• Ministry to the Northern Kingdom.
• New Testament speaks of him more than any other OT prophet.
• Appears twice in NT: Transfiguration (Mt 17); Witness (Rev 11).
• Performed Eight Major Miracles, including:
– Suspension of rain for 3 ½ years (1 Kgs 17);
– Confrontation on Mt. Carmel (1 Kgs 18).
• Translated into Heaven (2 Kgs 2).
• Daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidonians.
• Wife of King Ahab of Israel (1 Kgs 16).
• Synonymous with crafty, cruel, malicious.
• Naboth’s vineyard acquired for Ahab through an inquisition, false
accusation, and execution (1 Kgs 21).
• 450 prophets (+ 400 prophets of the “groves”).
Confrontation on Mt. Carmel
• Challenged Baal to match altars and sacrifices.
• Mocked them openly…
• After dousing his sacrifice 3 times with water, Elijah called fire down
from heaven and it consumed his offering…
• …then slaughtered the 450 prophets of Baal.
Confrontation on Mt. Carmel
“And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between
two opinions? if the LORD be God, follow him: but if Baal, then follow him.
And the people answered him not a word.”
1 Kgs 18:21
The 2nd Book of Kings
Second Kings contains the most tragic national record ever written…
• Annals of Israel, the Northern Kingdom (2 Kgs 1-10)
– Ministry of Elisha;
– Up to the death of Jehu, Israel’s 10th king.
• Alternating Annals of Both Kingdoms (2 Kgs 11-17)
(Jonah, Amos, and Hosea prophesy)
– Up to the Assyrian Captivity of Israel.
• Annals of Judah, The Southern Kingdom (2 Kgs 18-25)
(Obadiah, Joel, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, and
– Book ends with the Babylonian Captivity of Judah.
• Receives Elijah’s Mantle
• Desires “double portion” (2 Kgs 2:9) and performs 16 major miracles.
• Typical Implications
Elijah—John the Baptist.
Elisha—Healing acts; gentler words; life out of death.
A Glimpse of Unseen Warfare: 2 Kings 6:8-23
Then the king of Syria warred against Israel, and took counsel with his
servants, saying, In such and such a place shall be my camp. And the man
of God sent unto the king of Israel, saying, Beware that thou pass not such
a place; for thither the Syrians are come down. And the king of Israel sent
to the place which the man of God told him and warned him of, and saved
himself there, not once nor twice. Therefore the heart of the king of Syria
was sore troubled for this thing; and he called his servants, and said unto
them, Will ye not shew me which of us is for the king of Israel? And one of
his servants said, None, my lord, O king: but Elisha, the prophet that is in
Israel, telleth the king of Israel the words that thou speakest in thy
And he said, Go and spy where he is, that I may send and fetch him. And
it was told him, saying, Behold, he is in Dothan. Therefore sent he thither
horses, and chariots, and a great host: and they came by night, and
compassed the city about. And when the servant of the man of God was risen
early, and gone forth, behold, an host compassed the city both with horses
and chariots. And his servant said unto him, Alas, my master! how shall
we do? And he answered, Fear not: for they that be with us are more than
they that be with them. And Elisha prayed, and said, LORD, I pray thee, open
his eyes, that he may see. And the LORD opened the eyes of the young man;
and he saw: and, behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of
fire round about Elisha.
2 Kgs 6:8-16
What Are We Up Against?
Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the
wiles of the devil. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this
world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.
The Two Kingdoms
• The Northern Kingdom – Israel:
– 19 Kings reigned 250 years; 7 different dynasties;
– Assyrian Captivity, 721 B.C. (no return).
• The Southern Kingdom – Judah:
– 20 Kings reigned 370 years; 1 dynasty: The Davidic;
– Babylonian Captivity, 606 B.C. (70 years).
The Davidic Dynasty
• David is the standard of measure.
• God’s Faithfulness in preservation.
– Death of Azaziah, Joash preserved from the usurper’s sword by
– Childless Hezekiah, under Assyrian siege.
– Blood curse upon Jeconiah bypassed.
Object Lessons Ignored
The history of man teaches us that man learns nothing from history.
— Georg Wilhem Friedrich Hegel
With the exceptions of Hezekiah and Josiah, the downgrade continued
in Judah. Hezekiah became the greatest since David and Solomon;
Manasseh, the wickedest and longest reigning. The captivity of Judah
and the destruction of Jerusalem are emphatically ascribed to the
sovereign hand of YHWH.
The Price of Compromise
• Reuben, Gad, ½ tribe of Manasseh had settled east of the Jordan;
• Reuben, Gad, ½ tribe of Manasseh are the first to go into captivity
(1 Chr 5:25, 26);
• 13 years later the other tribes of the Northern Kingdom are deported;
• Assyrians appear to have been the most inventive in torture.
• Policy of replanting captives obliterate ethnic identities; therefore,
no “return” from exile.
The 10 “Lost” Tribes?
• A Non-Biblical Myth:
• Levites emigrate to South (2 Chr 11);
– Faithful from all 12 migrate to the South;
– Idol worshipers migrate to the North;
• All freed by Persians in 536 B.C.
• All “12 Tribes” evident in post-exile records:
– Ezra, Nehemiah, et al.; New Testament: James, Peter, et al.
1st Chronicles: The House of YHWH
• Israel’s Main Genealogies (1 Chr 1 – 9)
– Adam to Jacob.
– Jacob to David.
– David to Zedekiah.
– Tribal Allotments.
• David’s Reign at Jerusalem (1 Chr 10 – 29)
– Anointed of the Lord.
– The Ark of the Lord.
– The Covenant of the Lord.
– The Temple of the Lord.
2nd Chronicles: The Temple vs. The Throne
• Solomon’s 40 Years’ Reign (2 Chr 1 – 9)
– Early Establishment.
– Building the Temple.
– All His Glory.
• Judah’s History to the Exile (2 Chr 10 – 36)
– The Division of the Kingdom.
– The 20 Kings of Judah.
– Deportation to Babylon.